Chhattisgarh, situated in central India, has a rich history but a recent geography. It arrived on the maps of India and the world only as late as 1st November 2000. The capital city of this state is Raipur. The state is the 10th largest state of India and is spread across an approximate total area of 135,194 sq km.
The state lies between 80'15" to 84'20" longitude and between 17'46"N to 24'5"N latitude. The state has a rich reserve of minerals and contributes substantially to the Indian economy. Steel, aluminum and cement industries are found here in abundance. This is possible owing to the unique geography of Chhattisgarh. The major crops produced in this state are sugarcane, pulses, banana, wheat, rice and pulses.
The state is bordered by Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. It comprises of 18 districts which are Bilaspur, Dhamtari, Janjgir-Champa, Korba, Mahasamund, Raipur, Surguja, Narayanpur, Dantewada (south Bastar), Durg, Kawardha, Koriya, Raigarh, Kanker (North Bastar), Bijapur, Bastar and Rajnandgaon.
The northern and southern part of Chhattisgarh is a hilly region. The northern portion lies on the edge of the homogonous Indo-Gangetic plain. A tributary of Ganges called the Rihand river drains this area.
The southern part of this state is a constituent of the Deccan Plateau. The Godavari river and its tributary, the river Indravati, are important features of the Deccan Plateau in this region. The central portion of the state is located in the upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This basin is an extremely fertile region and has ample scope for rice cultivation. The upper portion of the Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal range, which is a part of the Satpuras.
The Mahanadi river, geographically and economically, is the most important river of this state. It is an integral component of the geography of Chhattisgarh. The other main rivers of this state are Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Hasdo (tributary of Mahanadi). The climate of this state is hot and humid, owing to its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer. The summer season here is from April to June, winter season from November to January, and monsoons drench from June to October.